Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Generalized Anxiety Disorder depression, phobias and stress, review

Generalized Anxiety Disorder: The origin of these problems has various sources of origin, however, these problems called “mental problems have intensified enormously in recent years because this world is becoming more urbanized and fast”, which leaves far below what is truly important as the feelings and values of people.

Stress has always existed in our world. It is as old as the human being himself. In another era, the objective of the body’s reaction to stress was to mobilize the energy resources of the human being in order to prepare for physical exertion and allow him to respond to danger by fighting or fleeing. The causes of stress were hunger, cold and need to defend themselves. However, it was not until this century in which stress became a massive disease produced by a completely exalted world, in which there is no minute left to rest and relax.

Phobias have their origin from nature, which gave us human beings a powerful defense when it instilled fear inside us. The fear of heights, animals and fire, for example, helped to ensure survival at a time when people defended themselves alone in the wild regions. Today, we don’t need those fears to survive, but they happen anyway. And for millions of people, the fear of animals, heights, or situations has become serious disruptions in their lives. These people are classified as the most common form of a group of psychiatric conditions known as anxiety disorders, that is, phobic.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Depression

Depression has an origin with 3 different postures:

  • The first position says that depression has its origin due to constitutional, internal, biological and hereditary predisposition factors.
  • Another position is the exogenous consideration of depression, that is, factors that are in the patient’s environment, such as stress, work events, professionals, family, loss situations (the death of a loved one, a breakup, etc.). It really would not be the environmental factors themselves that trigger depression, rather it would be the way the patient lives it and how he reacts, which can cause a depression to precipitate.
  • Finally, the third position is the one that considers that both endogenous and exogenous factors may be involved in the origin of a depression, in different proportions in different patients. It is really difficult to find a physical alteration that does not affect the mood and vice versa. The mood and the body can only be broken off theoretically.

Simplified criteria of major depressive episode

There must be at least five or more of the following symptoms during a two-week period, when they had not previously manifested for at least two months. The five symptoms should include depressed mood or loss of interest or the ability to pleasure:

  • Depressed mood almost every day and most of the day.
  • Marked decrease in interest or capacity for pleasure in all or almost all activities.
  • Significant weight loss or weight gain.
  • Insomnia or hypersomnia almost every day.
  • Psychomotor agitation or slowing down.
  • Fatigue or loss of energy.
  • Inappropriate feelings of worthlessness or guilt.
  • Indecision or decreased ability to think or concentrate.
  • Recurring thoughts of death, suicidal ideation.

The symptoms presented by the patient cause discomfort or deterioration of social, work or other areas of activity.

Depression is one of the most common diseases of the general population, paradoxically, it is likely to be the worst diagnosed, because it often goes unnoticed and is perhaps the worst disorder treated in clinical practice.

Partly because of how multiple and complex the symptoms and signs of depression are, in any of its states, but there are many different stages and problems in different age groups.

On several occasions they cannot be easily differentiated from normal grief and loss reactions.

Many people prefer to continue enduring depression, like a dead weight on the back, because they confuse depression, with lack of character or will, therefore you have to prove to yourself and others, that you can get ahead alone.

Until he has no strength left, the disease has robbed him of the desire to live, to fight, to fight against themselves and against the world, and at that moment thoughts of suicide appear … thoughts that are becoming more frequent, until they become impossible to stop.

Even depression can appear, paradoxically, as the consequence of some great success in those who are destroyed by success. Especially when success is unconsciously symbolized as a great weight, as a responsibility greater than possible.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Phobia

People suffering from phobias feel an irrational sense of panic, apprehension, horror or terror when confronted with the source of their fear. They know that their fear is irrational and abnormally strong, but the phobic reaction is automatic, uncontrollable and pervasive. Physical reactions include rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, trembling and an incredible desire to run away.

So intense is their anxiety that people suffering from phobias move as far as possible from the cause of their fear. For a person suffering from phobias, this could mean crossing a street to avoid walking near a dog. But for another, it could mean leaving a job on the tenth floor of an office building because claustrophobia (the fear of enclosed places) prevents her from getting on the elevator. Others may decline invitations to parties for reasons of fear of eating in public. Still others might demand that family members do all the shopping because they are so afraid of being in large public places.

NOT ALL PHOBIAS ARE THE SAME

Mental health professionals classify phobias into three general groups:

  • Simple phobias, which are the most common and focus on specific objects
  • Social phobias, which cause extreme anxiety in social or public situations
  • Agoraphobia, which is the fear of being alone in public places from which there are no easy escapes

The life of human beings is currently very hectic and we all have to become aware that, no matter how hard the work is, you always have to rest and relax so as not to end up with one of the many mental illnesses.

Although awareness about the importance of mental illnesses has increased and that many of them are easy to treat, many people suffer from them without realizing it.
The only solution for much of the s mental illnesses is to lead a healthy life, exercise, a healthy diet, normal sleep hours (7 to 8 hours), take a break from hectic life and take a vacation or some time to rest outside the city.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Post-traumatic stress disorder

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), important data to solve this disorder.

Post-traumatic stress disorder: A traumatic event is an event that is experienced as terrifying, with an intense fear, horror and feeling of helplessness, that there is nothing you can do to escape or avoid it. Almost all people exposed to a traumatic event develop typical symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), during the days following the trauma. It is a normal reaction aimed at assimilating what happened and learning as much as possible from that event, as a way to improve survival in the future.

In many cases, these symptoms gradually decrease until they disappear. However, if the symptoms persist after a month, it is considered that there is a post-traumatic stress disorder. In cases where the disorder lasts between 3 and 6 months, there are many chances that it becomes chronic, can last for years and significantly affecting the lives of these people in all areas. It can occur at any age, in both sexes and in psychologically healthy and well-adjusted people. It has a cumulative effect. That is, the greater the number of traumas experienced, the greater the likelihood of developing a PTSD.

Among the situations that are most likely to lead to PTSD include rape, sexual abuse, war, natural disasters, assaults, terrorist attacks, physical abuse, etc., May be an event that this person has experienced personally or something that you have either witnessed or been told, read, or seen on television. The severity of the symptoms can vary depending on many factors, including the severity of the trauma, the way it was perceived by the individual, the personal ability to cope with stress and the type of support and help received from family, friends, professionals, etc.

There are no tests that can be done to diagnose PTSD. The diagnosis is made based on a certain group of symptoms that persist after a history of extreme trauma. Physical and psychiatric examinations are performed to rule out other diseases.

While traumatic events, such as the tragedy of September 11, 2001, can cause distress, not all feelings of distress are symptoms of PTSD. Feelings should be expressed to relatives and friends. If the symptoms last a long time or are worse than those of friends, medical help should be sought. Help should be sought by immediately going to the emergency department or by calling the local emergency number (such as 911 in the United States) if the person is overwhelmed with guilt, if he is impulsive and thinks of harming himself, if he is unable to manage the behavior, or if he is experiencing other very distressing symptoms of PTSD. Medical assistance should also be sought when having progressive problems such as recurrent thoughts, irritability and sleep disorders.

Those who have experienced extreme stressful situations are recommended counseling or other crisis intervention immediately after the event. These people can help prevent long-term forms of PTSD and should be part of public health responses to at-risk groups, such as disaster victims. If people are not taken care of after a stressful event, they may develop some complications such as depression, anxiety and/or phobias, in addition to alcohol or drug abuse.

BIOLOGICAL BASES

The activation of the Sympathetic Nervous System has an important role in the body’s response to stress or threatening situations. Under conditions of extreme stress the Sympathetic Nervous System is triggered as a unit in order to maximize the mobilization and utilization of energy. This protection is short-term, however, it can generate long-term negative sequences in some individuals. In many patients who developed the disorder, the Sympathetic Nervous System seems to respond hyperactively to certain stimuli related to traumatic events.

Uncontrollable stress causes a release of endogenous opioids that produce an increase in analgesia. The opioid model of posttraumatic stress indicates that the presence of stressful and repetitive behavior is due to an inadequate secretion of endogenous opioids in adverse situations.

PSYCHIATRIC TREATMENT

The goal of treatment is the reduction of symptoms, stimulating the affected person to remember the event, to express their feelings and to gain some sense of mastery regarding the experience. In some cases, the expression of grief can help to complete the necessary grieving process. In this sense, support groups are very useful to provide an environment where people who have had similar experiences can share their feelings. Depression, alcohol use or substance abuse (which commonly occur with PTSD) or associated medical conditions may need to be treated before symptoms can be effectively addressed. Behavior therapy, a type of therapy conversational, can be used to treat the symptoms of avoidance, which includes techniques such as gradual exposure and immersion technique or frequent exposure to the object that precipitates the symptoms, until the person is used to it and stop it.

Medications that act on the nervous system can be used to reduce anxiety and other associated symptoms. Antidepressants have been shown to be effective in treating PTSD, including more Moderna medicines.

PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENT

Psychological treatment usually has the following features:

  • Treatment of intense emotions such as anger, guilt, shame, fear, etc., so that they learn to manage and transform them properly.
  • Gradual exposure in imagination or in writing to the feared situations, starting with the easiest to face. Teach them how to cope with post-traumatic memories, mental images, feelings and negative thoughts without being overwhelmed by them. The memories will not disappear but they can become manageable, so that they do not give rise to such intense and painful emotions, but to emotions that, although they remain negative, are easier to bear and less intense. For example, feeling angry or angry when remembering certain things, but not anger or desires to destroy or attack.
  • Treat other associated disorders, such as depression, alcohol or drug abuse, panic disorder, social phobia, etc.
  • Teach him to have a more realistic perception of the world and the people around him, that is not tinged by the trauma experienced.
  • Treat problems in their relationships, couple problems or sexual problems.

TIPS POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS

10 basic tips if you have post-traumatic stress disorder:

  • Learn everything you can about PTSD.
  • Tell other people what happened. Find someone who wants to listen to you and give you their support.
  • Start psychotherapy.
  • Practice relaxation techniques or activities that you find relaxing.
  • Practice activities that are pleasant to you, do some kind of artistic activity, such as painting, sculpture, writing, etc.
  • Try to avoid alcohol and drugs.
  • Don’t isolate yourself from others.
  • Try, as far as possible not to avoid certain situations or memories. Instead of trying to get them out of your mind, try to express them in some way, for example through art.
  • Exercise and eat a healthy diet.
  • Do some volunteer work or help others.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder the Anorexia and bulimia

Anorexia and bulimia, some facts about it and its treatments

Anorexia and bulimia: Getting over it in time. How to recognize the disease in oneself or in other people Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are devastating diseases that have taken on an unusual dimension among young people around the world and from all social classes, but they trap and hit women harder.

Anorexia a serius generalized anxiety disorder

It is the loss of appetite. It should be distinguished from the specific psychological disorder known as anorexia nervosa, and also from the relatively low food intake; the latter is not dangerous to health as long as the diet is varied and body weight is maintained, and should not be considered as a disorder that requires medical treatment.

Cause of this generalized anxiety disorder
The medical and psychological conditions that can cause anorexia include emotional disorders, stress, overwork, anxiety, depression, acute pain, serious diseases of any kind (especially infectious), disorders of the digestive system such as gastritis, liver diseases, kidney disorders and cancer. Anorexia can also occur as a result of taking medications, such as opiates, diuretics and those used to treat hypertension (beta-blockers) and heart failure. Due to this wide variety of causes, anorexia is of little use in diagnosing an underlying disease.

In children, there is usually a phase of refusal of food, which is a normal stage of development and is not harmful. Such a condition is not considered anorexia, unless weight loss and languor occur. In adolescents, on the other hand, anorexia can be a sign of anorexia nervosa or the use of amphetamines or other stimulant drugs. In a person of any age, a persistent anorexia, with uninterrupted weight loss, may be indicative of a serious illness, such as stomach cancer, and requires a medical examination.

Anorexia Nervosa

This disease is mainly characterized by intense fear of gaining weight and a distorted image of one’s own body (dysmorphophobia). It leads to serious weight loss due to an exaggerated diet and excessive exercise. It is not associated with any other previous organic diseases. It usually occurs in adolescents, especially in women. The disease causes alterations in hormonal cycles, immunosuppression with an increased risk of infections, and approximately 5 to 18% of anorexics die from malnutrition. Patients also often suffer from bulimia, which consists of ingesting huge amounts of food and then causing vomiting to remain thin; repeated vomiting disrupts the water-electrolyte balance, producing, in general, hypokalemia that can affect cardiac functioning.

There is no universally accepted treatment for anorexia nervosa. It is frequently associated with depression and low self-esteem, and patients usually improve with antidepressants. Normalization of body weight is an important step in the treatment of the disease. Psychotherapy and family therapy are often important. Half of the patients are cured definitively, although sometimes the disease ends up producing metabolic and hormonal alterations that aggravate the purely psychic process.

Many patients with anorexia nervosa never go to the doctor, so the frequency of occurrence of the disease is not exactly known.

Bulimia

An eating disorder caused by anxiety and excessive worry about body weight and physical appearance. It is characterized by repeated episodes of excessive intake followed by provocation of vomiting, use of laxatives, exaggerated diets and/or abuse of exercise to control weight.

Sometimes bulimic behavior is observed in patients with anorexia nervosa or in people who carry out exaggerated diets, but bulimia by itself does not produce significant weight losses. What does sometimes occur, due to the provoked vomiting, are gastrointestinal problems and severe hypokalemia (low concentrations of potassium in the blood), as well as injuries to the teeth due to the acidity of the vomiting. Bulimia appears mostly in adolescents, especially in women, due to different psychological mechanisms; the most obvious is the response to social pressure that values thinness as physical attractiveness, but also because of the difficulties in assuming a sexed body. Various group therapies and conditioning therapies are used to treat the disease. Antidepressants can also be effective, as many bulimics also suffer from depression.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder with the Food and Stress

Food and stress, as it contributes to generating this disorder

Generalized Anxiety Disorder Food and stress: Stress is a pressing problem in our current society that is often associated with states of anxiety and nervousness because of busy schedules that are difficult to reconcile work and family life. But apart from altering our health and endangering our nervous system, there are people who also reflect it in the form of a compulsive attitude towards food, which causes even more anxiety by altering our physical appearance. However, we must make food our allies when it comes to mitigating the symptoms of stress that haunts us every day. There are some that contain certain anti-stress elements, and if we also maintain a healthy and balanced diet we can get to the balance between body and mind sooner. In this way, the best functioning of the digestive, nervous and immune system is also achieved.

Most people who are in a state of stress choose to eat foods with a high sugar content, which in addition to getting fat causes blood sugar levels to rise dangerously. Another consequence is the disruption of tissues by the high release of free radicals. To counteract this, we can resort to foods that help counteract the effects of stress, such as because they have endogenous opiate elements that facilitate relaxation and a sense of well-being.

Among the nutrients that help our body to be balanced, and therefore we can enjoy greater physical and psychological stability are, for example, vitamins, mainly A and C. These are found in vegetables such as broccoli and cabbages, and in fruits such as melon and citrus fruits. Its action is to fight free radicals, therefore they prevent cells from becoming saturated and favor their renewal. Another important group of vitamins to take into account are those of type B, as they have sedative effects and strengthen the central nervous system; we find them in foods such as meat, cereals and dairy products.

Other important elements that we must include in our diet are minerals, since they cause an organic reaction that stimulates the body’s cells to fight stress, in addition to having relaxing properties and maintaining heart pressure at a normal pace. To this effect, the most important minerals are potassium, magnesium and calcium, which we can find in fruits and vegetables, meats, eggs, dairy products and nuts. In fact, calcium is known as a natural tranquilizer; for example, it is known to everyone that drinking a glass of warm milk before bedtime stimulates sleep and provides a good rest.

Apart from all this, we must avoid sweets (especially industrial pastries) since their high sugar content increases blood pressure and contributes to us being more stressed. To avoid falling into temptations, a good trick is to always have a licorice bar at hand, since in addition to practically containing no calories, it is a powerful anti-stress food. It is also advisable to take food supplements when we go through a particularly tense time, with physical and mental exhaustion, such as brewer’s yeast, which is rich in proteins and vitamins and contains anti-stress and detoxifying properties for the body.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder Eleutherophobia

Eleutherophobia, the fear of freedom other Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Eleutherophobia: In the world there are many phobias that can affect people but, one of which you may not have heard of, or perhaps you do not understand well, is, without a doubt, eleutherophobia, the fear of freedom.

This phobia began in the time of the slaves.At that time the slaves depended on their Lord, to whom they owed loyalty and did everything they were commanded. However, when they were free, many did not know what to do, what to say, they did not know how to live for themselves and they developed a phobia of freedom, that is, they had eleutherophobia, fear of that freedom that they were given, hence some were reluctant to abandon what they had done all their lives and continued to do it until the end of their days.

What is happening today? An eleutherophobic person is one who depends on another person. For example, among couples, a person who is subordinate to the other and who is afraid to decide for herself or to see herself alone at a given moment because she is afraid of that freedom. For him or her, the most important thing is to be told what to do because she is afraid to decide, to make a mistake or even to think for herself.

Among the symptoms that can occur are the panic to be single or be in a place where you can do what you want, there is also a fast heartbeat, and there may be shortness of breath with anxiety attacks even because it does not handle the situation that is going on that causes your body to react that way trying to restore the other situation.

In fact, shortness of breath can be lethal and it must be controlled in a short time because, although it may be true that it is not short of air, the body generates the feeling that it can lead to heart attacks or stop breathing.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder Agoraphobia

The disorder of agoraphobia another Generalized Anxiety Disorder

The agoraphobia disorder is generated by some negative experience on the part of the person, who by avoiding similar situations is developing a learning mechanism that makes the problem remain. The cognitive-behavioral treatment of agoraphobia is the most successful among those used and is based on subjecting the patient to a gradual exposure to situations that typically cause anxiety.

Agoraphobia may or may not be accompanied by:

  • A crisis of anguish: Temporary and isolated appearance of intense fear or discomfort, accompanied by four (or more) of the following symptoms, which start abruptly and reach their maximum expression in the first 10 min:
  • (1) palpitations, shaking of the heart or elevation of the heart rate
  • (2) sweating
  • (3) shaking or shaking
  • (4) feeling of choking or shortness of breath
  • (5) feeling of choking
  • (6) chest tightness or discomfort
  • (7) nausea or abdominal discomfort
  • (8) unsteadiness, dizziness, or fainting
  • (9) derealization (feeling of unreality) or depersonalization (being separated from oneself)
    –(10) fear of losing control or going crazy
  • (11) fear of dying
  • (12) paresthesias (feeling of numbness or tingling)
  • (13) chills or suffocations”
  • Panic disorder: “The essential feature of panic disorder is the presence of panic attacks recurrent and unexpected, followed by the emergence, during a period of at least 1 month of persistent concerns about the possibility of suffering from crises of anguish and their possible implications or consequences, or of a change in behavioural significant related to these crises (Criterion A).” They must be distinguished from the effects produced by some substances such as caffeine or medical diseases such as hyperthyroidism.

Panic attacks should be distinguished from panic attacks that occur in clear phobic disorders, as already mentioned. Panic attacks can be secondary to a depressive disorder, especially in men. Panic disorder should not be the main diagnosis if the depressive disorder guidelines are simultaneously satisfied.

HELP TECHNIQUES AND TREATMENT OF AGORAPHOBIA

Breathing training: It consists of learning to change a fast breathing pattern for a slow breathing one. In situations of high anxiety, a common response is to hyperventilate, and with this we can cause the appearance or intensification of a whole series of symptoms that will only prolong and intensify anxiety. In the treatment program for Panic Disorder, a form of slow breathing is taught that acts as a relaxation technique, to help face the situation that produces anxiety in a more serene and effective way.

Thought change techniques: An important aspect in our reaction to what happens to us or to the situations we encounter is the way we interpret those events or situations. What we think about situations, the meaning we give them, is what will determine how we feel about them. Sometimes we make erroneous interpretations, and this leads to feelings of discomfort. With the techniques of changing thoughts we tried to do like a scientist: to prove to what extent we were right or wrong in our interpretation of the situation. Finding alternative ways of thinking about what is happening to us leads to less disturbing feelings and allows us to cope better with those situations. In Panic Disorder treatment, it teaches how to identify, challenge, and combat the “catastrophic” thoughts or interpretations that are made of the symptoms of panic attacks. With the indications of therapists, the person learns to seek more objective interpretations about the consequences of bodily sensations in panic attacks. In this way, panic attacks can be better coped with and their frequency reduced.

Live exposure and exposure to body sensations: If we knew someone who wants to learn to ride a bike, but when he has tried he has fallen off the bike, what would we advise him? Probably to get back on the bike. The best way to overcome a fear is to face it. The live exposure consists of gradually and progressively addressing the situations that produce fear and anxiety, remaining in them until the fear or anxiety begins to lose intensity. In the treatment for Panic Disorder, an individualized hierarchy of the feared situations that the person is progressively facing is elaborated. A coping of the bodily sensations that occur in panic attacks and that people fear is also carried out.

Virtual reality exposure: It has many advantages over traditional exposure: it is safe, as the person (and the therapist) control at all times what happens in the virtual environment, which often depends on chance in live exhibitions; you can repeat the exposure to a situation as many times as necessary until the anxiety subsides and the person gets used to what he fears; it is not necessary to leave the consultation, which means a significant saving in time and travel; and finally, it allows you to design the exposure hierarchy “to measure”, with which the person can be exposed to practically all possible situations, and even impossible ones. In the treatment for Agoraphobia panic disorder the person has a whole range of situations related to agoraphobic situations, which are usually avoided so that panic attacks do not occur. All this is achieved through immersion and navigation through the different virtual scenarios that we are designing for the treatment of Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder, panic attacks and agoraphobia, overview

Anxiety, panic attacks and agoraphobia: Symptoms, effects and treatment

Generalized Anxiety Disorder, panic attacks and agoraphobia: For many people, panic attacks, anxiety and agoraphobia are an everyday occurrence and they assume it naturally, since most of the time it is confused with stress. These individuals are not aware of their level of stress, tension and restlessness because they attribute it to a bad streak of nervousness and stress due to work or personal reasons; but many times, this level of tension is clearly higher than our physical and mental limit is willing to tolerate, hence the attacks and diseases derived from psychological and psychosomatic origin.

Most people suffer an attack of this type throughout their lives, because due to the education we have received, which puts duty and obligation before enjoyment and rest, we often act against the clock and under pressure, and unconsciously this causes anxiety to undermine our strength. Often, we also feel defeated in the face of certain frustrations, and we look for ways out or solutions that rather aggravate the problem rather than solve it (anxiolytics, alcohol, tobacco). The body has its limitations of functioning, and it cannot be forced to always work at a frantic pace.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder like Panic attacks are related to anxiety crises, but the first ones are unexpected, since they appear suddenly and often lead to inability to continue with daily life. The person suddenly feels terrified for no reason, resulting in physical symptoms such as palpitations; they can occur at any time, without warning, and it is a chronic and treatable disease. This disorder may or may not include agoraphobia, which translates as the pathological fear of being in open and unprotected spaces. Generally, it is a type of anxiety that the individual experiences in adulthood, from the age of twenty-five, and it can also occur in middle-aged people and even increase in old age. Men suffer from it much more than women.

Faced with this type of attacks, what is recommended first of all is to go to a specialist who determines the causes of such a disorder, since they can be of a psychological or organic type. It is necessary to change basic habits in behavior, such as food, rest, exercise and fun. Try to lead a normal life and not sick, face fears and situations, since it is an internal disorder that you have to work with the therapist from yourself. When we are facing an attack, we have to take a deep breath, holding the air inside and expelling it slowly until we notice that the tingling and palpitations disappear. Avoid bad thoughts and depression, after one of these attacks, it is better to try to distract yourself with playful activities or that give us inner peace, such as reading, walking, aesthetic enjoyment or a good conversation. We can even give ourselves something as a method of minimizing fear. Self-indulgence is sometimes more powerful than any medicine, to learn to value and love yourself.

See also Generalized anxiety disorder – Wikipedia

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